The Umberto Di Mario Foundation, based in Rome and Siena, works in the translational medicine arena, and in particular in the treatment of diabetes, including rare forms of childhood diabetes. The Foundation, assisted by an International Scientific Committee, promotes and supports excellent research projects and other initiatives (fellowships, workshops). The specific interests of the Foundation include diabetes mellitus, chronic inflammatory diseases and immune-mediated diseases, in addition to tumors of the nervous system. The Foundation participates in national and international research networks supported by institutions including the European Commission, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the Italian Ministry for Research and the Italian Ministry of Health. The Siena-based group is composed of 5 researchers under the scientific coordination of Prof. Francesco Dotta, diabetologist at the University of Siena.